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首頁醫療資訊優質醫學您應否實行無麩質飲食法?

您應否實行無麩質飲食法?

8/26/2018 | 來自: Medix團隊

與麩質有關的疾病案例在過去十年持續上升,因此愈來愈多人選擇無麩質飲食法來控制這失調症狀。此飲食法在沒受到麩質困擾的人之間也逐漸變得普及,因為他們認為這比傳統飲食更健康。可是,實行無麩質飲食法的最基本原因已漸漸被人淡忘,甚至被人誤解。了解麩質的作用及明白無麩質飲食法的目的是維持健康飲食習慣的重要一環。

麩質是儲存於穀物種子胚乳中的蛋白質統稱,能給予其彈性及延伸性的特質。麩質能在小麥、大麥、黑麥、小黑麥及帶有黑麥和小麥特質的穀物中找到。另外,加工食品為了增加味道和口感也會用到麩質。它也含有人體所需的維生素、礦物質及營養。

 

在健康的消化系統中,酵素能把蛋白質分解成一種名為肽的氨基酸物質。大多數的肽會持續分解直至被腸道吸收到血液當中為身體所用。可是在某些情況下麩質無法被酵素分解,因為當中的蛋白質在消化過程中生成有毒的肽,從而引致腸道出現劇烈的免疫系統反應,而此反應在患有乳糜瀉、非腹腔性麩質過敏、小麥過敏或其他腸胃病患者身上十分普遍。

 

無麩質飲食法的主要目的是控制相關疾病的醫學症狀,如要實行則必須謹慎對待。決定前需要先進行適當的篩查,確保得到正確診斷並判定該飲食法對其的有效性。清楚了解乳糜瀉、非腹腔性麩質過敏及小麥過敏的分別是作為長期治療和營養吸收的重要基礎。

  • 乳糜瀉 – 估計全球約1%的人口患有乳糜瀉,它被分類為多系統性免疫失調或遺傳性自身免疫疾病並影響著小腸及胃部系統的黏膜。此病症的觸發點是進食含有麩質的食物,若沒作出適當治療,它能對腸胃道造成傷害,更會使患者無法正常吸收食物中的營養而形成吸收不良的情況。乳糜瀉有超過200種已知的臨床特徵,由貧血、抽筋、腹瀉及便秘,到疲憊、頭痛、關節痛、骨質疏鬆、發育遲緩及不育等。相關專家正研究非飲食性治療,但現時最有效的方法仍是遵循無麩質飲食法。
  • 非腹腔性麩質過敏 – 此病症與乳糜瀉有很多相同症狀,可是卻不會對小腸組織造成傷害。研究指這可能是免疫系統的短暫性失調,但是這過程無法被清晰界定。因此建議非腹腔性麩質過敏患者在重新測試是否對麩質過敏前,先實行一段特定時間的無麩質飲食法。
  • 小麥過敏 – 此病症的症狀與前面提及的兩種病症大相徑庭,它與其他食物過敏差不多。症狀包括:痕癢、蕁麻疹、充血及呼吸困難,更嚴重者可能會出現過敏性反應因為免疫系統把小麥內的麩質判別為病毒或致病原。對小麥過敏最有效的治療是把患者的餐單中所有的小麥麩質食品去除,但其他麩質食品還是可以進食。

對於乳糜瀉、非腹腔性麩質過敏及小麥過敏的患者來說,進行無麩質飲食法是個終生決定。因為此飲食法需要小心注意食物中的成份,並需要留意當中的營養成份以達至健康均衡飲食。現今沒有任何臨床證據顯示無麩質飲食法對非患者來說是更健康的生活模式。另外,不管麩質失調與否,我們都必須留意所有食品的營養價值、鹽、糖及卡路里含量。Medix建議您在決定實行無麩質飲食法前先諮詢醫生或專業醫護人員。

 

 

 


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