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首頁醫療資訊優質醫學你有糖尿病風險嗎?

你有糖尿病風險嗎?

11/14/2018 | 來自: Medix團隊

糖尿病是一種嚴重的慢性疾病,現在更被視為一種流行病,在1980年至2014年期間,18歲以上人士的患病率增加了80%。美國目前有超過3,030萬糖尿病患者,而根據2013年的全國調查,中國有超過1.19億糖尿病患者,數字仍在持續增長。 本文將解釋糖尿病的類型、導致糖尿病的原因以及如何最好地預防糖尿病。

 

糖尿病是一種嚴重的慢性疾病,出現在胰臟不能產生足夠的胰島素(一種調節血糖的激素),或者當身體不能有效使用它所產生的胰島素時。

糖尿病會導致身體的血糖水平高於正常標準。糖尿病的類型有一型、二型和妊娠糖尿病,後者於懷孕時出現。 二型糖尿病佔每年絕大部份的糖尿病新增病例。

 

一型糖尿病(舊稱胰島素依賴、青少年或兒童糖尿病),指你的身體會將​​製造胰島素的細胞視為入侵者,並將其摧毀。這過程可能持續幾個星期、幾個月或幾年。當一定數量的細胞消失後,胰臟會產生極少,甚至零胰島素,令血糖上升至危險水平。 一型糖尿病患者每天通過注射器、胰島素筆或胰島素泵注射胰島素。 一型糖尿病的病因不明,目前亦無法預防。

 

二型糖尿病,指你的身體不適當地使用胰島素。起初,胰臟會製造額外的胰島素來彌補缺口,但最終將難以供應足夠的份量以維持正常血糖水平。 二型糖尿病可由飲食改變、運動、口服藥物和/或胰島素治療。

 

科學家雖不知二型糖尿病的確切起因,但二型糖尿病的發展與多種風險因素有關,例如:

  • 高血糖、糖尿病前期或妊娠糖尿病的個人病史
  • 超重
  • 缺乏足夠運動
  • 家族病史
  • 基因傾向
  • 年齡
  • 高血壓
  • 膽固醇異常

 

糖尿病治療的兩個目標是確保你的整體感覺良好,並預防或延緩長期健康問題。實現這些目標的最佳方式是服用醫生處方的所有藥物、計劃適當的膳食,如吃什麼、份量的多少、什麼時候吃和多做運動。二型糖尿病通常會隨時間變差,所以即使你一開始不需要服用藥物,日後卻也難以保證。

 

我如何知道自己的糖尿病治療是否有效?了解你的糖尿ABC:

 

•監察A1C – 你的A1C血液檢查會讓你了解整體的糖尿病治療是否有效。每年至少進行兩次A1C血液檢查可幫助你和你的醫療團隊清楚掌握血糖控制情況。

•監察血壓(Blood pressure) – 你的血壓數字告訴你血管內的血液是如何有力地流動。高血壓表示你的心臟必須更努力工作。為了預防糖尿病的併發症,血壓正常與控制血糖一樣重要。

•監察膽固醇(Cholesterol) - 你的膽固醇數字告訴你血液中的脂肪含量。糖尿病傾向於降低“良好”的膽固醇水平,並提高三酸甘油酯和“壞”膽固醇水平,增加心臟病和中風的風險。

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